Danish Version    

 The Author of This Site

  The Prelude to the Wars

 
The First  War 1848-51

 
The Battles 1848-51

 
The Siege of Fredericia

 
The Second  War 1864

 Dannevirke  Stronghold

 The Siege of Dybboel

 
The Attack on Fredericia

 
The Attack on Dybboel

 
The Attack on the Als
        

 
The Peace

 
The Consequences

 Dybboel 2010

 Als 2010
 



 




































 


The Two Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-50 and 1864

The Prussian Amphibious Attack on the Island of Als

 
 
The truce Talks in London broke down because the Danish government would not go into  a division of Schleswig. Despite the defeat at
 Dybbøl, on april 18thl 1864 maintained the Danish diplomats with Prime minister D.G. Monrad the requirement for a boundary at the
 Eider. The Danish government was well aware that after the defeat at Dybboel they had not any military options, but threy that the army
 could hold out, while the Danish diplpomacy achieved something at the negotiating table in London. The government based its hopes
 that the European powers Russia, France and Britain had guaranteed the Danish possession of Schleswig. It quickly became clear that
 none of the major powers were willing to go to war for Schleswig's sake. When the negotiations broke apart definitively, the Prussian
 army could make the final attack on the Danish army by an invasion of the island of Als.

 
 On June 26th 1864 the ceasefire ended and a fleet of open boats, gathered at Ballebro before the attack on the Dybboel. Originally they
 should have been used to surround the Dansih army at Dybboel via a landing at Hardeshoej at the Als side. Now these boats were
 moved to the forrest Sottrupskov at the coast of Alssund, a narrow strait between Jutland and the island Als,

 The owner of Sandbjerg Farm had at a time offered to cut the parts of the forest facing the Alssund, but the ministry of war was sure the
 Prussians could not make any use of the area. At two o´clock at night on June 29th,  2500 Prussian soldiers with 166 boats and 20
 pontoon ferries started in the first assault wave across  Alssund between Sottrupskov and Arnkil.
  

  The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. The Ramps for the boats  at Sottrup
Because of the steep banks to the beach
it
was necessary to dig ramps for the
boats  launching from the forrest
The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Position for the Prussian Fiels Artillery at Sottrup
      The embarkation was covered by
   batteries of field artillery
in the woods
     The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Grave for 5 drowned Prussian SoldiersThe Ramps at Sottrup
The transition was not without casualties.
The Graveof 5 drowned Prusian soldiers.

 The Danish forces on the peninsula Arnkil took immediate battle, but the defence was too weak. There were only approx. 50 soldiers
 who quickly were defeated.
The nearest Danish forces was in Ulkebøl. As the nearest major Danish forces reached the battle area, a
 fierce fighting developed around the 
village of Kaer.

  The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Map over the Transition area.
        Map over the attack
The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. View over the strait between Als and Sottrup
 The strait between Arnkil and  
          the Sottrup Forrest
     The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Memorial for one of the participating Prussian Regiments.
    Prussian Memorial of the
attack at the landing siteon Als

 The attack could probably be averted military as the Danish ironclad Rolf Krake  on the way down through Alssund could have fired on,
 and sunk, the simple small boats, which the Prussian forces were transferred in. But just as Rolf Krake was about to open fire, order
 was given to turn around and sail to Mommark to support the evacuation of the Danish army.

 During the morning the Prussian troops defeated the Danish army, and at. 5.30 am the Danes gives up to  defend the island and
 
moved, constantly fighting, back to the little Peninsula Kegnaes to the south.
From here the troops were shipped over to the island
 of Funen and Copenhagen the next day.  On  
July 1st  the last Danish soldier left Als.
 The Danish army's losses (killed, wounded and captured) in connection with the fight for Als totaled 3,148 men, while the correspon-
 ding Prussian losses amounted to 372 men.
Subsequently Prussia occupied Als, the Austrian forces occupied the north of Jutland
 and the 
Danish government had to sign a peace agreement
.

                     The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als.German Picture af the Landing
                      The first wave of almost 2500 soldiers
                        of Prussian infantry landing at Als.

The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Danish Guards at the Alssund.
          Danish guards at the Alssund
 

                                                                        The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. One of the Boats used by the Prussians for the landing.
                                                                                              Boat used at the transsition

 
The success of the Prussian invasion immediately got the mood in the Danish public to turn. In the leading Copenhagen newspaper the
 panic spread, and it was seriously discussed
if there was a probability of an enemy force landing on Zealand.
 The entire Danish warfare was based on the fact, that the fleet had supremacy in the inner Danish waters and that the enemy could not
 reach the islands.
Now the Austrian fleet main force was headed for Kattegat and if the Danish naval supremacy was lost too, the
 Prussians could easily cross the Fehmarn
Belt and conquer the unprotected Lolland-Falster. Then Zealand and Copenhagen could be
 the next target.

 The prospect of war was not just something that was happening over there in the darkness of Jutland, but actually it also could hit the
 capitol. This fact got the national liberal core movement in the Copenhagen
citizenship to give up and demand peace at almost any
 cost.
The population's fears were not unfounded. The commander of the German forces, Prince Friedrich Karl, actually had detailed
 plans for an invasion of Funen, too be effected if Denmark chose to continue the war.
To the great chagrin of the prince there became
 no need for another large-scale Prussian landing operation.

 

                                           Prussian Memorial in redoubt X.  
                                           Here the order of the attack on
                                           Als
June 29th 1864 was given, and

                                          
from there, the German supreme
                                           command watched the operation.
The Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-51 and 1864. The Landing at Als. Memorial for the Order of the Landing at Als in Redoubt X at the Dybboel.

 The Landing Site 2010

  Graves and Memorials on the island of Als 2011