Danish Version    

 The Author of This Site

  The Prelude to the Wars

 
The First  War 1848-51

 
The Battles 1848-51

 
The Siege of Fredericia

 
The Second  War 1864

 Dannevirke  Stronghold

 The Siege of Dybboel

 
The Attack on Fredericia

 
The Attack on Dybboel

 
The Attack on the Als
        

 
The Peace

 
The Consequences

 Dybboel 2010

 Als 2010
 

















 

 
The Two Danish-Prussian Wars 1848-50 and 1864

The Southern part of Jutland in the period between 1864 and 1920

  
 Jutland was after 1864 a distant fringe of the great German Empire, and the weakened economic expansion resulted in emigration
 and slow urbanization.
Agriculture became more intensive and industrialization began, but only fully reflected in the city Flensburg.
 The infrastructure was developed with steamboats, a modern road network and particularly railways.

 In Denmark, the government after New Year 1866 was aware that it pulled up to the war between Prussia and Austria. The back-
 
ground was was
disagreements on the former Danish duchy Holstein, where Austria after 1864 had been the administrator.
 Following an advice from France, the Danish government offered support for Prussia, on the condition that Denmark would have
 Schleswig north of the Slien back.
 However, Bismarck refused pure, he had no use for Danish support to defeat Austria.
 
 On
July 3th 1866 Prussia was victorious in the battle of Sadova, and on the 23th, with France as mediator, Prussia and Austria
 signed a prece treaty
in
Prague. In the Prague treaty § 5 France gained included:
"Residents in the northern district of Schleswig shall be forfeited to Denmark when they at a free referendum,  are expressing
 the desire
to reconcile with Denmark. "
 The pro-Danish North Schleswig (South Jutland) protested in the first decades after 1864 energetically against the German
 annexation.
This occurred in particular in light of § 5 int he Prague peace.
This clause was repealed in 1879.

 A speciel group of former Danes the socalled (in danish) "Optanter" and especially their children, gave rise to problems between
 the Prussian
administration and the former Danish subjects in Southern Jutland. The "Optanter" were the Danes who lived in the
 new Prussian North Schleswig from 1864 to
1870
 
They could stay and keep their Danish citizenship "if they were not a nuisance." Otherwise they could expelled to Denmark. These
 "
Optanter" could also choose to seek German citizenship, although this was largely obstructed by the German
local administration.
 It was worse with their children, known as "optant-children". They were from a Danish point of view born in Germany and thus not
 Danish
nationals.
 
Conversely, from a German point of view, they were of Danish nationality and therefore not German subjects. In fact they were
 
stateless, and
as time went by, there were fewer "optanter" and more and more" optant-children". The Optant-conference in
 1907 solved this problem only partially.
 To prepare for a protracted nationality struggle, the Danish movement from the 1880s organized in a number of large and small
 national associations.
The connection to Denmark was strengthened in line with the intensification of the governments and local
 administrations
 attempts to
Germanize North Schleswig by force.
 In 1888 German-only teaching in schools and the state began simultaneous buying of agricultural land to ensure it on German
 hands.

 During World War I Former Danish men were conscripted into the Imperial German Army and in  German service during
 1914-1918 approx.
 
5000 Danes were killed. The Northern part of Slesvig was during the war drained of men in a degree, that
 
Russian POWs were sent to help on farms.

 The referendums in 1920.

 At the peace in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, September 10th 1919, gives Austria in Article 85 up its rights in the former duchy of
 Schleswig.
At the peace in the Grand Trianon, June 4th 1920, Hungary in Article 69 corresponding gives up its rights in Schleswig.

 In 1920,  was conducted two referendum which led to the the current boarder. Prior to the referendum all national symbols were used.

 
Mummy! vote Danish
      Think of me

 

  Vote yourself home

 On February10th voted North Schleswig with a majority of 75% of the votes for Denmark.
 
On 14 March 14th voted 80% of the voters in the middle of Schleswig for a continued presence in Germany.
 On both sides of the border there were national minorities.

  Genforeningen
A lillte marker describing the
lost daugther being returned.
Young girls gives a Danish flag to the King at the reunion celebrations at Dybboel 1920.
  The Danish king is being presented a Danish flag on the
               former redoubt V by girls from the region.

                                       The reunion with the rest of Denmark after 54 years as "Germans", called on the national feelings.